Archive | March, 2012


27 Mar

Scores of United Nations staff and personnel were victims of detention, abduction, kidnapping, assault, harassment and even murder again over the past year.

Every attack on a UN staff member is a tragedy for the individuals involved, a serious crime that must be prosecuted, and an attempt to undermine our Organization’s global work for peace, human rights and development. We must respond with prevention, protection and justice.

The UN Department of Safety and Security has documented 189 cases where United Nations civilian personnel were detained or arrested by Member States in 2011. The problems continue this year. As of today, four staff are being held.

The UN Department of Safety and Security has further reported that 18 United Nations civilian personnel were abducted and held hostage by criminal elements and extremist groups in 2011. During the first two months of 2012, 10 United Nations personnel were abducted. All but one have been released.

I am closely following all staff security incidents. I will never forget the words of one peacekeeper I met after his release from months in captivity. He described how he had worried about his loved ones, coped with being in chains for hours on end, and struggled through days and nights of uncertainty and isolation. “It’s not so easy to stay alive – but it’s also not easy to die just like that,” he said.

This peacekeeper, like so many other staff, returned to work for the United Nations following his release. I am inspired by the dedication of our staff. I am outraged by attacks against them. And I am determined to protect every single person serving under the United Nations flag worldwide. I thank the Staff Union for keeping the spotlight on this problem and pledge to fully support their efforts.

True protection demands collective action. Yet only 90 Member States have ratified the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, and only 27 have ratified the 2005 Optional Protocol which extends protection to UN personnel delivering humanitarian, political or development assistance.

On this International Day, I demand the immediate release of all detained staff members, and I call on all countries to join forces to protect the thousands of United Nations personnel who risk their safety to help suffering people in some of the most dangerous parts of our world.


Carter Center Statement on Mali March 23, 2012 CONTACT: Deborah Hakes +1 404 420 5124

24 Mar

The Carter Center strongly condemns the seizure of power in Mali by elements of the military.  The Carter Center calls for the immediate and peaceful return to constitutional order and the establishment of a short transition toward the scheduled elections.

“Mali is a shining example of a country struggling to put democratic principles into action,” said former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. “Control of the military should immediately return to the democratically elected civilian government so that the country can continue its path toward lasting peace, development, and democracy. The safety of President Touré and other state officials must be ensured.”

The rebellion in the North should not be allowed to destabilize the country further. The path forward remains a negotiated settlement, ceasefire, and the disarmament of rebels.


24 Mar

We have taken note of the alternative costing of the NPP Free NHS policy
produced by the Centre for National Affairs (CNA).

This is a very welcome development, since it heralds a new era of
competitive policy-based political debate in this country.

In the specific case of the CNA’s intervention in the SHS debate, however,
there are simply too many gaps in their analysis to allow for its use as
an effective tool in interpreting the financial impact of the proposed
fee-free SHS policy.

We however welcome their suggestion to use primary Ministry of Education
data and the results of the Ghana Living Standards Survey – round 5.
Indeed, we have overcome our earlier concern about the Ministry’s dataset
not being up to date by using careful projections. This has enabled us to
follow an identical approach to the CNA’s, and also provided further
corroboration of our earlier analysis. We are now proceeding to publish
the results.

We had chosen to use JHS enrolment data in our earlier analysis because
the treatment is smoother that way. The critical impact of the policy is
derived from its objective of ensuring seamless “transmission” from JHS to
SHS. In that light it makes sense to focus on that level and to “stretch
out” the average per capita costs to accommodate the analysis. That
notwithstanding, the approach used by the CNA, provided the shortfalls in
their methodology are remedied, should lead to outcomes similar to those
produced by the original IMANI approach.
We will now proceed to identify some of the most worrying gaps in the CNA

1. CNA claims that according to GLSS data the amount spent by households
on each secondary student is $148. This is odd since the actual average
amount indicated on page 124 of that document is GHC244. This figure is
converted to $148 by the CNA, wrongly.
The CNA should have used 2008 constant dollar rates rather than the early
2012 dollar-cedi conversion rates that they used. Had they done so, the
figure would have come to: $256. Indeed, the GSS data dates back to 2005,
so a truly robust treatment would have projected to 2011 in Ghana Cedis
before commencing the dollar conversion. Again, the final sum would have
been more than twice what the CNA claims.

2. The CNA assumes that the total cost of catering for the expanded intake
of students is limited to Government’s absorption of household
expenditure. They do not account for the fact that for each new student
beyond fixed enrolment, the existing costs ALREADY borne by the government
has to be considered as “additional” when evaluating how much more new
students would cost the nation. Page 135 of the 2008 Preliminary
Educational Sector Performance Report provides the 2008 per capita costs
over a period of 5 years. Using the same rate of growth over that period
to project current government expenditure (usually called ‘subvention’)
yields an average expenditure of more than $840. This gap in the analysis
alone, sadly, completely derails the CNA’s conclusions.

3. The notion that over the next two years the Ghanaian economy will
double (from about GHS45billion to more than GHS92billion) cannot be based
on any realistic projection of current growth trends. At best a 25%
expansion in GDP (as opposed to the CNA’s 100%) can be expected. Any
expanded oil revenues will be based on current planned investments in the
oil resource (i.e. we need to pre-invest in oil infrastructure for fresh
output to come on board) giving us a clear view today of what oil revenues
are likely to be over the life of a prospective NPP government, should
they win the 2012 general elections.

These grievous gaps, unfortunately, makes the CNA’s figures untenable in
the current debate.
Below, we have proceeded to use the same methodology and data sources as
they did (but only after closing the critical gaps in their analysis).


Because there is no headcount of Secondary High School (SHS) or even
Junior High School (JHS) students this year or the year before, the
analysis has to be based on projections from the available data. The
Ministry of Education (then Ministry of Science, Education, Sports &
Science – MOESS) published the now widely referenced, “Preliminary
Education Sector Performance Report (PESPR)” in June 2008.
In that report the Ministry provided the following enrolment figures at SHS:

2003/2004  – 328,426

2007/2008  – 454,681

These data points suggest a compound growth rate of 38% over 5 years. 5
years is a good time span to average out year to year fluctuations.
Using the same growth rate trends, it is safe to assume that current
enrolment, in 2012, is about:

2011/2012  – 630,000

It is important to note that while this data includes figures for private
SHS students, it does not include information on the technical,
agricultural and vocational (TAV) sectors, where data is weakest (the 2008
PESPR report provides an estimate of about 70,000 “trainees” in public TAV
institutions, but the sector is treated in such a peculiar fashion that it
is perhaps best to leave it out of this analysis.)
We hope to show later in our discussion that it does not really matter
which proportion of total student enrolment relates to the private sector
as opposed to the public sector. This is simply because we will be using
pre-calculated average expenditure per student, which already takes into
account the fact that the central government spends very, very, little on
students in private SHS schools.
In considering enrolment for the coming analysis, we shall be using the
transmission rates between JHS and SHS instead of gross and net enrolment
rates. The proposed NPP policy has as its core objective the extension of
“basic” education to cover SHS, and sees therefore a seamless
“transmission” of JHS students to SHS, in very much the same way that
Primary 6 pupils “transmit” automatically to JHS today. We should, hence,
in our analysis be interested in:

1.    The certain increase in the number of JHS students that shall enrol in
SHS in 2013/2014 should the NPP form the next government.
2.    The fact that JHS enrolment itself is likely to expand further
considering the huge numbers of potential JHS enrolees who are currently
not in school. This shall feed into even higher enrolment at SHS in due

With that in mind, we can now examine the JHS enrolment figures provided
in the PESPR report:
2003/2004  – 986,111
2007/2008  – 1,224,964

Using the same 5-year compound growth rate, we can project current total
enrolment at JHS, i.e. in the 2011/2012 academic year, as follows:
2011/2012  – 1,525,000
Consequently, at the commencement of the 2013/2014 academic year, assuming
the same rate of transmission as primary-to-JHS (67%), the total number of
enrolled students in SHS1 shall expand from the current roughly 210,000 to
about 342,000.
[One can increase the total enrolment in SHS2 and SHS3 by the historical
trend of annual increases. Let’s however leave the figure static for
clarity of analysis.]

On the above assumption, it is estimated that upon the commencement of the
policy in 2013/2014, roughly 762,000 students shall be enrolled overall.
This is a very realistic projection.

We could however also, for future reference purposes, assume a more
conservative transmission rate, of 58%. That shall imply an SHS1 enrolment
level of 300,000 students upon the policy’s commencement, and an overall
SHS enrolment level of 720,000.
Based on identical projections, the realistic scenario suggests a total
SHS enrolment figure in year 4 of the NPP administration (year 3 in the
policy’s lifecycle) of 1.28 million.

Based on identical projections, the conservative scenario suggests a total
SHS enrolment figure in year 4 of the NPP Administration of 885,000. It is
important to point out that even ignoring the likely effects of the policy
current growth trends suggest that the SHS enrolment level in 2016/2017
shall be approximately 790,000.


For ease of analysis, we assume that in year one, all “additional” costs
as a result of the policy shall arise because of the additional 90,000
students (in the conservative model) or 132,000 students (in the realistic
model). The other cost item, unexamined in this analysis, to keep in mind
is the “cost of adjustment”. The cost of adjustment includes light capital
expenditure such as desks, learning materials (including text books),
public education, supervision, etc. but not heavy capital expenditure such
as classrooms, dormitories, dining halls, transport equipment, workshops
and laboratories etc.


To determine the additional (or combined marginal) cost due to new
students joining the secondary school system in year one, we employ an
elementary arithmetic relation:
Unit Current Govt Subvention (CGS) + Appropriated Household Expenditure
(AHE) = Public Sector Student Per Capita Expenditure (SPC)
That is simply to say that the cost of the current subsidy or subvention
per student at SHS plus the expenses currently borne by households but
transferrable to government in the wake of the policy equals the
additional cost per new student enrolled as a result of the policy.
Both the government’s average expenditure per student – CGS – and the
private expenditure per student – AHE – must be adjusted year by year for
inflation and currency depreciation costs in order to obtain the “real”
amount in the future.
Based on historical trends, a conservative 15% compound annual growth rate
might suffice for direct analysis. We however chose to rely on implied
projections in this narrative, thus enabling us to relax this assumption.
Let us now examine one after the other the two inputs in the arithmetical
relation above.
CGS (Unit Current Government Subvention)

According to the Ministry of Education itself:

The Per capita (the Ministry distinguishes this from the ‘unit’ cost)
public sector expenditure – the ‘CGS’- in 2003 was GHS191.
By 2007 the corresponding figure was GHS523.
It is instructive to note however that these figures did not include
‘personnel emolument’, essentially the cost of salaries paid out to
teachers and other public sector educational workers.
The combined growth rate in the CGS government expenditure over the
time-span under consideration is thus 273%.
It can be safely projected that the corresponding 2012 figure is GHS1,452,
which is in turn equivalent to $842 in 2012 prices. It is acceptable to
use this as the initial CGS figure for the 2013/2014 commencement year.
While this figure may come across as aggressive given other estimates
provided so far in this debate, it is important to note that it is derived
by sound principles from the Ministry’s own base data, and that it does
not even include personnel emolument costs.
The terminal CGS (government average expenditure per student in 2016/2017)
can be derived by projecting the 2008 figure at 2012 prices yielding
$1,220. It is interesting to point out that at 3% per annum the dollar
inflation rate is not completely negligible but for clarity of analysis we
will leave it static.
We now need to compute the AHE.

AHE (Average Household Expenditure)
We use the GLSS-5 data (notwithstanding the widely known concerns about
occasional granularity issues at district level).
The average secondary school expenditure per student per household is
provided in the September 2008 GLSS-5 report as follows: GHS244, which
corresponds to $256 (at 2006 dollar prices of 0.95 GHS).
If we were to follow the CNA’s lead and assume that government shall
assume 85% of the costs involved, then the adjusted AHE figure for this
analysis comes to $217. Given the breakdown of costs in the GLSS-5
however, there is no reason why government cannot choose to absorb the
entire cost if the policy is to boost enrolment. Since boarding students
outnumber day students, the transport component of the AHE build-up, the
one cost item easily discounted, is very small.

SPC (Total Policy-Related Cost Burden Per Student)
From an abundance of caution, we have decided to use the 2008 CGS level
throughout the remaining analysis, thus producing ultra-conservative
In that light the cost per each new student is $1100 (CGS + AHE). In the
scenario where government chooses not to assume the full complement of
direct household costs the corresponding figure is: $935.

In the ‘conservative scenario’, this amounts to $134 million or $114
million, should government assume only partial responsibility for private
costs. Note however that this figure relates strictly to additional
enrolment “following the introduction of the policy”. The government must
also absorb the household expenditure of those SHS1 students who “would
were enrolling anyway”. This is an additional $54 million, bringing the
total cost to $184 million or $168 million in the conservative model.
In the ‘realistic scenario’, this amounts to $154.5 million or $133
million plus $54 million, bringing the total cost to $208.5 million or
$187.5 million.

At this point, the analysis is more straightforward because we shall be
able to use total SHS enrolment to compute the total cost burden.
Based on assumptions already discussed, total JHS enrolment shall stand at
1.906 million students.
In the conservative model, total enrolment at SHS level shall come to 1.1
million. Total expenditure shall therefore come to $1.216 billion or
$1.0285 billion (in the scenario where government assumes partial
responsibility for private costs).
In the realistic scenario, total enrolment at SHS level shall stand at
1.277 million. Total expenditure shall therefore come to $1.404 billion or
$1.1934 billion.
The median projection is thus: $1.340 billion or $1.1115 billion.


These calculations do not explicitly accommodate the policy’s adjustment
and administration costs, defined above to include learning materials,
furniture, public education etc. There has furthermore been no accounting
for capital expenditure such as buildings and transport equipment etc.  No
personnel emolument or training costs are included in the CGS calculations
providing additional latitude for any downward adjustments due to error.
Because the data used for the CGS calculations are already averaged out,
there is no need for specific disaggregation of rural – urban, private –
public, or day – boarding sub-data.
Clearly, the use of GLSS-5 and Ministry of Education data, and the narrow
focus on SHS intake analysis in no way revises the earlier estimates
downwards. If anything at all, the higher averages, due to higher
resolution data, merely exacerbate the cost implications of the fee-free
SHS policy.

In future commentary, we shall investigate the capital costs of
adjustment, before moving on to examine the cost-benefit matrices and
overall structural and other objective social and economic merits of the
proposed policy.
IMANI Center for Policy & Education (; syndicated by

IMANI Center for Policy & education
First Floor, No. 231 Bari House
Flat Top Junction, Off Achimota-Lapaz Rd.
P.O. Box AT 411
Accra, Ghana
Email :
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24 Mar

21 March 2012

The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is an important opportunity to remember the pernicious impact of racism.

Racism undermines peace, security, justice and social progress. It is a violation of human rights that tears at individuals and rips apart the social fabric.

As we mark this International Day under the theme of “racism and conflict,” my thoughts are with the victims.

Racism and racial discrimination have been used as weapons to engender fear and hatred. In extreme cases, ruthless leaders instigate prejudice to incite genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.

There are many valuable treaties and tools – as well as a comprehensive global framework – to prevent and eradicate racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Nevertheless, racism continues to cause suffering for millions of people around the world. It thrives on ignorance, prejudice and stereotypes.

The United Nations is responding by working to foster inclusion, dialogue and respect for human rights. Where societies have been shattered by conflict, the United Nations strives to promote peace processes and peacebuilding that foster inclusion, dialogue, reconciliation and human rights. Uprooting racism and prejudice is essential for many war-torn societies to heal.

At the same time, I look to all people to join the United Nations in our drive to eliminate racism. We must, individually and collectively, stamp out racism, stigma and prejudice.

This year, we are spreading the word through social media. Visit our new website, Tweet your support with the hashtag #FightRacism. Share the text of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination with the link Post to one of our Facebook pages in English, French or Spanish. Or create your own campaign.

UNIC New Delhi invites global participation in 24FPS International Animation Awards 2012

24 Mar

Theme:The Future We Want


In 2011, the United Nations Information Centre for India and Bhutan,and its partner, the Maya Academy of Advanced Cinematics (MAAC),India, successfully organized a global contest – the 24FPS International Awards 2011 – that saw young filmmakers create animation films on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).


24FPS International Animation Awards 2012:

Based on the success of the 2011 initiative, we have now negotiated with MAAC to open the 24FPS 2012 contest to entries catalysed by UNICs around the world. Following DPI’s strategic communication advice, the theme for this year’s animation film festival and competition will be TheFuture We Want, reflecting the UN’s global initiative to capture people’s ideas, dreams and aspirations for a better tomorrow.

We invite UNICs to join us in this exciting project and publicize the contest in their respective countries. UNIC New Delhi would be happy to receive competition entries from other UNICs and forward them to the Awards jury.

For more information on categories and participation, please visit


20 Mar

 Zoomlion Ghana Limited, a waste management organization, in collaboration with the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, last Friday handed over refuse trucks and other equipment for distribution to 17 Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) in the Central Region.

Handing over the keys to the trucks at a ceremony in Cape Coast, the Central Regional Manager for Zoomlion, Mr. John Sackey, said the new trucks would provide additional logistical support to the MMDAs in order to enhance their capacities to deliver higher quality waste management services in their respective areas and also to help Zoomlion realize its vision of being champion of clean, green and healthy communities by the year 2015.

“Waste management in the country has been a daunting task that needs concerted efforts to help achieve a five-star delivery in the country”, he said while calling on all and sundry to play a part in curbing the menace.

The Minister for the Central Region, Mrs Ama Benyiwa-Doe, receiving the keys to the trucks, called on experts in the environmental sector to develop more efficient ways of managing waste in the country.

She warned that “Ghana has come far and cannot afford to stick to the old traditional ways of waste management especially in the wake of the fact that now more waste is being generated than it could be dealt with by the Sanitation Units of the various Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs)”. She also appealed to the Assemblies to adopt new ways of dealing with the problem.

Mrs Benyiwa-Doe handed over the keys of the trucks to the Chief Executives of the various Assemblies and said that even though waste disposal and management had become a major problem in their areas, they could network with other organizations to solve the problem.

She appealed to Ghanaians to be prepared to pay “a little money” to have their waste disposed of properly and ensure a clean environment at all times.

She urged Zoomlion to monitor and ensure that the equipment and vehicles were well utilized in the districts.

Receiving the keys from the regional minister, Hon. Nii Ephraim, MCE for Efutu who also doubles as the Dean of MMDCE’s in the Central Region, expressed his gratitude to the government of Ghana and Zoomlion Ghana Limited for the move which he believes will go a long way to help enhance waste management operations in the region. “This ceremony is to show that the relationship that exists between Zoomlion and the various MMDA’s is bearing fruits and all we hope for is a continued partnership.”, he said.



2 Mar

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women- UN Women, one priority area is to end gender-based violence and through the Ghana UNiTE Campaign initiative organized a walk to raise awareness on the need to end violence against women and girls. This was in preparation towards the Africa UNiTE Mount Kilimanjaro Climb, the regional component of the United Nation’s Secretary General’s Global UNiTE Campaign to end violence against women and girls.
The historic climb to the Aburi Mountain under the theme ‘Speak Up, Climb Up’ also coincided with the events to mark this year International Women’s Day in Ghana. About 500 women and men from various institutions in the country participated in the event.
The National Programme Coordinator for UN Women Ghana, Ms. Afua Ansre explained that the Africa UNiTE Campaign was launched in 2010, during the week of the Africa Union’s Heads of State Summit., and it is a United Nations Inter-agency initiative bringing together 11 UN organizations to undertake coordinated actions and activities to eliminate violence against women and girls. She noted that, Mount Kilimanjaro Climb has been planned from March 5 to 9 this year and would involve at least one participant from each of the 54 African countries, members of from civil societies and the media.
Ms. Ansre further stated that, every woman and girl should live in a home where she is free from the threat of violence and every girl should be able to attend school without the risk of abuse. This she believes, together, we can change deeply rooted attitudes and practices that discriminate against women and girls in Ghana.
Ms. Salamatu Musah, an athlete and Ghana’s Representative in the Mount Kilimanjaro Climb, espoused that sports can be a venue for the empowerment of women, and through the leadership of female athletes, we can draw attention to the plight of abused women and children in Ghana and on the African continent.